Difference between forward and sendRedirect


Control can be forward to resources available within the server from where the call is made. This transfer of control is done by the container internally and browser / client is not involved. This is the major difference between forward and sendRedirect. When the forward is done, the original request and response objects are transfered along with additional parameters if needed.


Control can be redirect to resources to different servers or domains. This transfer of control task is delegated to the browser by the container. That is, the redirect sends a header back to the browser / client. This header contains the resource url to be redirected by the browser. Then the browser initiates a new request to the given url. Since it is a new request, the old request and response object is lost.

For example, sendRedirect can transfer control from http://javapapers.com to http://anydomain.com but forward cannot do this.

‘session’ is not lost in both forward and redirect.

To feel the difference between forward and sendRedirect visually see the address bar of your browser,
in forward, you will not see the forwarded address (since the browser is not involved)
in redirect, you can see the redirected address.

When can we use forward and when can we use sendRedirect?

Technical scenario: redirect should be used

  1. If you need to transfer control to different domain
  2. To achieve separation of task.

For example, database update and data display can be separated by redirect. Do the PaymentProcess and then redirect to displayPaymentInfo. If the client refreshes the browser only the displayPaymentInfo will be done again and PyamenProcess will not be repeated. But if you use forward in this scenario, both PaymentProcess and displayPaymentInfo will be re-executed sequentially, which may result in incosistent data.

For other than the above two scenarios, forward is efficient to use since it is faster than sendRedirect.

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Example for forward and sendRedirect based on real world

Consider the real world scenario, the milk man comes and asks for monthly payment to you in your house. Here house is the container and you are a resource existing in the container. Milk man is the client or browser.

He asks for the monthly payment to you, this is the request made by the browser to resource A. If you go inside your house and ask your mother (another resource B inside the same container) for the cash and come back and deliver to milkman this is called forward.

If you ask the milkman to speak himself to your mother inside your house or you ask the milkman to speak to your father who is in his office (different domain) then this is called redirect.

This JSP tutorial was added on 13/05/2008.

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441 comments on “Difference between forward and sendRedirect

  1. Hi,

    Thank you for your excellent work. I liked the example you have given here for the difference between forward and redirect.

  2. Very good explanations for forward and execellent example for the difference

    Thank you!

  3. really good explanation for difference between forward and redirect and practical example.

  4. awesome style to explain this scenario,
    I was really searching on internet for the real example for sendRedirect and forward. Finally I found from this article … thanks a ton

  5. Finally, I know the difference between forward and sendRedirect :P . Thanks a lot.

  6. Good points detailing out the differences and mentioning when to use what. Thank you.

  7. Hi,

    Forward and redirect difference example is good .

    I have read this blog and this is really very good to read as in the example understood.

    I think if every topics related to java or advance java will be written like this with example then it is easy for everybody to understand.


  8. In the technical scenario given above – for payment & display of result, why do we need client interaction? Correct me if I am wrong.
    for example, the user does a payment by clicking Pay Now button. In most of the online payment sites, there will be a warning saying – do not press fresh button or back till you get a confirmation message – I think in this scenario, forward is happening. Please let me know whether my understanding is correct? ( email pn8572@gmail.com)


    • Prashant,In the scenario of the online payment when the sites give a warning saying “Please do not press the back or the refresh button” they are using redirect not the forward.Because once the payment is successful then again its getting redirected to a different page which is showing the payment successful information.

    • Hi Prasanth,

      In the payment and Displayinfo once fill informaion on merchent page(info)related once we presss the submit button then internaly it will goto payment site if u want conformation see URL(exp: flipcart==> to anybanksite) then in this time it will show dont press refresh button or back bcz if u prsss payment is not completed so transaction is not completed so transaction is rollback bcz of that it will show error page. once payment is sucesses then it redirect to merchentsite.now if u press refress button it wil show only displayinfo will refreshed but it wil not called payment.

  9. It is an excellent and crisp definition.thanks for such a explanation.

  10. Really very logical real time explanation of forward & sendRedirect , great work

  11. This site is the best among many !!
    Great !

  12. Simply superb. Nice Explanation with real world example for forward and sendredirect

  13. Fabulous!!!! Really great thinking in real world against the technologies.

  14. Hi..

    Really too good.In many websites they just give the definition.And only in this blog i got it cleared.Thanks.

  15. difference between forward and redirect is now crystal clear.
    vvvvvvvvvvvvv good explanation with genaral example.

  16. You rock Joe! That was really helpful :)

  17. Awesome example…. keep up the good work!

  18. Excellent Joe….Real world example is too good..

  19. Finally, I know the difference between forward and sendRedirect :P . Thanks a lot.

  20. Excellent example for forward and redirect. Great Work and Great thought…Keep the good work…

  21. Excellent work!!! really it will help lots of people who are trying to understand forward and sendRedirect….really great job….even the last example is awesome.

  22. Excellent Joe. Real world example is very clear.
    Thank you for your work.

  23. I liked the milk man example..vry short and 100% clear…

  24. Wow This is very helpful to understand the core concept of forward and sendRedirect. The examples above gave very clear understanding of the concepts. Keep posting lots of topics.

  25. nice example…. thank you for your excellent work…

  26. Thanks…… and I can understand your explanation easily

  27. I find this site to be unlike from the others. I would like to appreciate your work & passion…simply superb!!!

  28. HI Joe,

    I really liked the example and enjoyed learnng the concept.

  29. Haha.. Very Funny Example and very indepth explaination

  30. Excellent Real world example is too good..
    i mean it understands very easily……….
    thanks buddy…

  31. this is very nice explanation example of forwad and senddirect.is there any other type of examples are there.pls forward to my mail.thanks

  32. Very nice article, Could you please include spring and hibernate in this site.

  33. Very good explanation. As somebody suggests plz. update springs and hibernate in this blog.

    Thanx again

  34. HI Joseph,
    Excellent work!
    thank you!
    Could you please include spring,struts and hibernate in this site with real world examples!

  35. Thanks a lot for explaining the difference between forward and redirect in simple way..

  36. hi…
    Its very nice to uderstand with examples…
    its very nice if u explation other topic (j2ee and advance topics)….
    very very nice….

  37. I could understand your example very well. But there is a confusion with a real time situation that I’m thinking about.

    If you go to irctc.co.in for payment it will redirect you to netbanking application. At that time since this is a redirect it’s a new request and the old req/resp will be lost. But once payment is done it is going back to the irctc.co.in. Where this url is preserved? in the session?

    It would be very helpful if you clarify the situation mentioned above.

    • There is an attribute of HTTP Header called referer (actual spelling referrer) which will always keep track of the last URL from where the request is being made.

  38. Thanks for good explaination with good examle

  39. gd explanation….besides i demond code examples….

  40. Hi boss.
    I got a good explanation after a long time.

  41. Super job!! the examples are very clear to understand the concepts

  42. i never seen such a simple example like this for forward and redirect… thanks a lot

  43. Excellent you have given such nice explanation.The way your writing and explaining every thing perfect

  44. nice explanation but if you can give example of forward then it is good …thanks

  45. I could understand your example very well. But there is a confusion with a real time situation that I’m thinking about.

    If you go to irctc.co.in for payment it will redirect you to netbanking application. At that time since this is a redirect it’s a new request and the old req/resp will be lost. But once payment is done it is going back to the irctc.co.in. Where this url is preserved? in the session?

    It would be very helpful if you clarify the situation mentioned above.

  46. @elangovan
    Thats a very nice question relating to the context.

    Here this is a redirect and there is no doubt about it. irctc (web application) is integrated with the payment gateway. While integrating, there will be provision to set the callback url and the list of arguments that needs to be passed back to the web application. So, once the payment is done, the payment gateway will call the registered url (in this case irctc). So there is no need to preserve the url in session. The call will be done by payment gateway.

    Some additional information:

    Internally there will be another url involved called notify url. On payment, this notify url (in the irctc web application) will be called along with status variables. This will happen in a notify-acknowledgement mode. Using the status variables, webapplication (irctc) can update its database or execute process like sending an email (ticket) to the user.

  47. nice work…n a very gud example to explain the difference.

  48. Nice way of explaining the difference b/w forward and redirect…

  49. awesome example, which makes crystal clear between forward and Redirect.

  50. can anybody tell me where the request and response objects will go in both the cases

    what i think about
    that in this case previous req n res will be destroyed when control is transferred to another page

    req n res will transferred to another page along with the control

    n pls tell me about the include also.. i think in this case previous req n res comes back to the same page after transferring the control

    please correct me if am wrong….

  51. Thanks to share the good explanation with real example

  52. Hi Joseph,

    When i click redirect in jsp it will go to struts and will call funtion redirect i..,
    public void redirect() throws IOException, ServletException
    HttpServletResponse res = null;


    here i want to redirect(i want to change the url in address bar using sendredirect) but it is throwing nullpointer exception)
    how can i get from this.
    pls help me……..

  53. Its really helpful for me to study thank you dude

  54. theory was good thank u for that and could u please post some example programs :)

  55. very very nice example.wonderful xplanation.

  56. Once if we have this type of real time explanations, at that time we can’t forget the concept. . .
    Anyhow superb explanation. . .

  57. Thank you a lot. This is really very useful. keep blogging.
    Thanks again…:)

  58. very very good and clear difference b/w both of them and with a good example

    Thanks very much…for sharing these things….!!!!

  59. Great….

    Example is super, is it helps lot to remember the concept……

    Great again

  60. Hi

    It is Very Good Example and we can Remember easily.

  61. Thank u very much for giving such an exellent example

  62. Hi Joseph,
    I appreciate your initiative for the beginners help,Your blog is very much helpful for me to remove confusion about this topic . you right great example of payment process . It is very much practical example i have found .

    Thanx allot.

  63. This is really a good solution. Thanks for this solution

  64. Hi thanks a lot. This is really good

  65. kondaveeti somasekhar chowdary said on ,

    superb explanation. . .

  66. Great man….nice and very very helpful example.

  67. nice explanation(example is very good easy understandable)

  68. Hi,

    Thanks Joe.

    I have gone through most to the link to get my answer ‘to the point’ but i never got my answer up to satisfactory label.
    In this link i got my answer ‘to the point’ with wonderful example.
    Thank you Joe once again. Please continue as long as possible.

    Thanks & Regards
    Anup Shrivastava.

  69. Hi Joe,

    Example explained the whole concept clearly . Thanks a lot .

  70. Please provide Spring concepts also..

  71. It seems to be like a pictorial example. good work keep going

  72. Hello,
    I am a beginner in JAVA and the concepts explained here are very good and real life examples make it even more clear.

    i am lucky to have come across this website..
    its indeed really helpful…

  73. Hi.. Nice example to understand better…:):):)

  74. Hi Jo, Very good! Thanks a lot. keep it up…

  75. Hi Boss.

    very thanks boss. Super example.

  76. REALLY SUPERBBBB… No one can give example more than this…

  77. good explanation with great examples… thank u..

  78. Explained the concept clearly and in a very simple way. Good Work

  79. Very nice explanation in very simple language.

  80. Hi Joe,

    That was awesome explanation with the real time senario in simple language.

  81. hello sir..

    itz really a very good explaination.. thank u so much sir..

  82. S………….. of course it’s good

  83. awesome example of class level and real time level.
    I am really impressed by this example

  84. Very nice explanation. Please keep posting these kind of explanations.

  85. very good explanation with great examples… thank u..

  86. good explanation ………Thank q….

  87. nice article. bt when i tried, send ridirect is not working for other domains, i mean control is not going to the pages that are out of the web application

  88. sorry,i got it.by using response.encodeRedirectURL(“destination”);

  89. Joe,

    Agreeing to all, nice example to explain.


    Can you please keep all your ‘thank you’/appreciation threads seprate or collapsable.

    Some ppl do post additional info and finding them b/w umpteen thankyou’s is difficult.

    Why not, assign a star on article, on evry appreciation recieved :)
    thats how notebook should look like , starry

  90. Excellent defenition and example…Joe…

    Keep on posting….

  91. @Java Learner, thanks for taking time to stop by comment. Let me see and fix it in the near future. :-)

  92. great..!!!!
    i LIKED IT

  93. Good Job Joe. I have good experience in java. i really liked the point ‘TO ACHIEVE SEPERATION OF TASK’ and the way you presented this point with example.

  94. Good Job Joe. I have good experience in java but i really liked the point ‘TO ACHIEVE SEPERATION OF TASK’ and the way you presented this point with example.

  95. Great Example… I really understand the concept of both redirect and forward..

  96. servlet is threadsafe or not… I want to know this concept exactly.. can anyone explain this…

    • Servlet is not thread-safe by itself because of performance overhead. Prior to Servlet 2.0 to make it thread-safe you need to implement
      SingleThreadModel interface but its deprecated and can be removed from future version.
      You can make your Servlet thread-safe by making the service method synchronized.

  97. Hi Joe you site is super and nice explanations to be understand by anyone. Admiring your interest in Java,

  98. excellent example but only one statement is wrong dear that is “Control can be redirect to resources to different servers ” in case of sendredirect we can forward the request to another web-app but they should run under the same server only.

  99. It was never clearer to me before.

  100. Really its very good real world example,now i can’t forget it till my life:-)

  101. Really nice article.
    Very well example.

  102. nice Example ..Thanks joe.i’ll never forget it.

  103. thanks plzzzzzzz help me in other topic also.

  104. I loved the real world example.. good one!!

  105. Very catchy and interesting real world example. Thanks Joe

  106. Joe, u rocks …love dis blog ….keep up ur enthusiasm and good work …

  107. nice real world example.good job.Thanks a lot

  108. does browser retains Cookies when redirecting to another domain?
    e.g. if Domain A sets a cookie in response before doing redirect to Domain B, will browser retain that coookie while creating new request for Domain B?

  109. Please have this comment section with categories such as “Appreciations”, “Improvement” and “Q&A”.

    More over..It would be good if this comment section is expandable, rather than a long list on a single web page.


  110. Hi Sir,

    Thanks for the wonderful explanation with examp. My doubt got cleared

  111. Hi Joe
    You rock . only because of ur notes and real world example i got the job.

  112. Thanks Joe for such an explanation, the answers in this website are class apart.

  113. Awesome Article. Keep going.. thanks.

  114. hi,i have a doubt to use send Redirect method.
    when i implimented redirect method in my action class , how i hide parameters from users.

  115. its very helpful to me in my mejor project making.thanks a lot

  116. I have wonder your statement:
    ‘session’ is not lost in both forward and redirect.
    Because I know session will be lost in redirect.

    Please correct me if i am wrong .

  117. The real time example cited here makes to understand the whole concepts.

  118. Can you plz further elaborate this example in terms of session? What will happen to the objects that are stored as request attribute?

  119. Your realtime example narrated for this concept is simply superb.

  120. Very good Example Dear friend….. Follow this ways… I understood easily..

  121. Good example.. this shows how to describe difficult scenario in an easy way !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  122. awesome example…..you changed my life…..thankk you!!!!

  123. Excellent Example…!!!! now only i have got clarity between forward and sendRedirect techniques…!!! thanks a lot…!!!

  124. Good Explanation with.. Good Examples.. really i like it..

  125. really helpful and very clearly explained,thanx a lot.

  126. could not help appreciating your way of explaining..it really made the concepts crystal clear…thank you… u rock..

  127. Thank you. I liked the real time example. It made me understand the concept easily.

  128. I like the real time example very much..it’s really help me a lot…thank you very much joe

  129. A lot of Thanks, here real world example is very good,and i want to give thanks again for this.

  130. Very nice example. This site is very good, understandable.

  131. fantastic example to understand the difference between forward an redirect

  132. Hi,
    this is very good examble…
    easily understand the difference.

    thanks a lot.

  133. Simple and straight explanation. Thanks.

  134. This is a really simple to understand !!

  135. thank u so much for giving this simple example. ur explanation is realy very good.

  136. you awesome man….brilliant explanation.

    khasim on july 30th,2012 2:28 am.

  137. you awesome man….brilliant explanation.

  138. Nice explanation and good example too.

  139. it makes me very clear about sendRedirect and Forward…thank u very much..

  140. Milk man example are very good..
    thank u very much..

  141. thanks a lot joe , really you have given great example which can help anyone….

  142. Very nice explanation!!!!
    Thank you Joe :-)

  143. Example of Dudhwala is awesome:) Please add some tutorial on jQuery, if you are expertise in it.

  144. Great example and very good explanation in simple words.

    like all your posts, keep up the good work!

  145. Thanks Yaar , finally i understood here in this website

  146. Great Explanation sir.learning fromm this explanation is like a cakewalk.

  147. Hey thanks. I understood the concept now.

  148. Very good explanation, Now i understood a great sir,

  149. Chennakesava Reddy Vustalavaram said on ,

    Wonderful example Joe….

  150. The difference u explained between forward and redirect is like a bulls eye…

  151. The difference is superbly explained…hats offf..!!

  152. Hi its really nice blog that you have maintained specially the example of forward and redirect was amazing.

  153. I liked the milk man example. It is fantastic. Understood the concept very well.
    Many Thanks,

  154. Very easy to understand..luking forward for blog like
    oraclepapers from you :D

  155. fine example.. Keep up the good work…

  156. Hi Joe, Nice examples you have given as well as explained. Your IRCTC example is also perfect. This also happens when we use Paypal Payment Gateway or similar. Good job!! Keep it up!! :)

  157. Thank you so much .. you explain concepts so well

  158. Thankyou joe,
    Your real time example is easy to understand by us.keep give this type of real time example to other subject also …
    all the best.

  159. this is the best tutorial for all the beginners who have doubts in forward and sendRedirect…
    thank u very much….

  160. Excellent… mind blowing…Very good explanation with extremely good example.

  161. Hello boss
    good example its really nice piece of example.

  162. Amazing real world Example,please provide this type of examples to other topics also.It is easy to understand.

  163. Cool stuff! Really liked the milk man example :-)

  164. Very good explaination with real world examples.Good job.

  165. I have a query.

    I have a jsp with all costants.I want to use those value in a servlet(which calls by the web.xml at the loading the server).

    How can I achive this?

  166. Hi Amigo,

    really good example and simple to understand.

  167. Amazing example. It helped to understand the tricky part in simple way. Thank You

  168. Nice description about the difference between forward and redirect. Can u plz help me to get information and working about collections in java from basics. If u have any materials for that, Plz send me to my mail ID mentioned here. Please do helpfull. Thanks in advance..

  169. mast………but i m expecting one example program for forward and request….

  170. Your examples are awesome. I liked it no no I admired it

  171. its very awesome answers. by this answers i qualified google’s interview. thank you so muchl

  172. its very awesome answers. by this answers i qualified google’s interview. thank you so much.

  173. hi…very nice..really your every post is useful…thanks.

  174. I think we also can switch from one domain to other by using Context level RequestDispatchers forward() method.

    Let me correct if I wrong!!!!

  175. Really thanks , its very helpful for beginners..excellent definition and example

  176. I am really happy with your simple for forward and sendredirect

  177. I am really happy with your simple for forward and sendredirect

  178. Thanking y sir,you are very good Teacher…

  179. Really a very good explanation..with real world and practical scenarios.


  180. It really gives a clear concept….without the real world implementation it really becomes confusing

  181. thank you verymuch…it was really helpful to understand the concept.

  182. Hello Joe,
    The example given to this topic is good. Many of them who do programming does not know which one to access because they have not been given the scenario examples. Even in my days of going to java course they didn`t think of giving the examples simply they said this is the syntax, you need to use like this. How can one understand when? where? how? why? to use the concepts of prgmming language. It is best desirable to give examples rather than teaching long hour periods. I think you have done a great job and if possible give examples like the said above to all the concepts blogged in this website.

  183. 1st time ever understand basic diffidence in two year java exp

  184. Nicely explained. Speaking of forwards and redirects, can you please explain the owasp top 10 security vulnerabilities? Its quite confusing for me to understand those in owasp or the others. I really look forward about you explaining about those ten!

  185. Thank you,finally i got the difference between redirect and forward

  186. Hi joe, example taken to explain this topic is fantastic… thank you, thanks a lot.

  187. Awesome Explanation !!!!!!!!!!!!

  188. Awesome Example. Got clear information about sendRedirect() and forward() methods. Thanks alot :)

  189. superbbbbb explanation…. thanks alottttt

  190. Sir. you have definitely made our lives easy. Learning Java was never so enjoyable.

  191. Hi Joe,
    Thanks for the explanation, I have a question. Other than session is there any way that we can transfer data across requests?

  192. i think the forward example is little confused.according to the eg.. if u ll give the money to milkman that means the servlet-1 getting the result from servlet-2(Mother) and send d response to the request(milkman)….THIS IS THE EXMPL OR INCLUDE…THANK U.

    • In forward() the servlet-1 forward the request to another servlet-2.the second servlet-2 to whom u forward the request ll send the response to the request not the servlet-1.

  193. SuberB!!!!! Real world example!!!! joe

  194. very nice explanation and nice example

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  196. Good and easy example. Keep doing good work

  197. Just wish to tell u that the real world example was great.. Got the idea from the example.

  198. Nice explanation and awesome example ha ha ha..

  199. The example given was too nice.I got a clear idea on the topic.

  200. Fantastic very good real time example..

  201. awesome style to explain this scenario,

  202. Hi….Joe….!

    A very good clarification….


  203. Useful information… Thanks Joe.
    Your way of explanation is simply superb.

  204. explanation is given by one tech lead …..
    hehehehe now i got it….

  205. Hi Joe,

    Really, you had posted a Excellent topic
    The touchy part of the article was the Milk Man example.

    Thanks a Lot for your Effort.


  206. Thanking you. Your my best java teacher..

  207. I searched for this in many websites but the explanation given here is awesome. In simple words,described the best.Thanks a lot Joe sir.:)

  208. Excellent work and excellent way of teaching by example.
    Thanks Joe

  209. Simply superbhhhh…..What an example !!!!!

  210. For example, if i pay electricity bill in online, i have to pay the money through netbanking, can we say it is happening through redirect, then how the bill amount is getting displayed in netbanking site without a response/request.

  211. No doubt you are doing revolutionary work.
    Here I would like to suggest to you. Include practical examples with your theoretical explanation that make it absolute.

  212. Example made my redirects and forwards solid..

  213. Thanx.The way of explaination is superb!! through good example.

  214. Great Explination Joe.
    Appreciate your work.

  215. Excellent example very well understand.Thanks sir

  216. Sir,
    i want to know which one is faster in execution forward() or redirect ()?

  217. I like your real world example. Thanks for sharing informatiiion

  218. Thanks joy ….very clear example …easy to understand

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